Material Grouping

Material Grouping

A. Material

1. Cast Iron            : Carbon > 1.5%

Consist of 4 kind;

  • Gray
  • White
  • Ductile iron
  • Wrought Iron

2. Carbon Steel     : Carbon < 1.5%, Cromium Content < 4 %

3. Low alloy steel  : Cromium 4 & ndash;9%
4. Stainless Steel   : Cromium 12% and over

Consist of;

  •  Ferritic Stainless Steel                      : 12-30 %Cr, C < 0.1 %
  • Martensitic Stainless Steel               : 12-18%Cr, 0,15-0,30% C
  • Austenitic Stainless Steel                 : 12-27%Cr, 7-25%Ni
  • Ferritic-Austenitic (Duplex)           : 18-25%Cr, 3-5%Ni, Moly < 3%
  • Martensite-Austenitic                       : 13-16%Cr, 5-6%Ni, Moly 1+2%

B. Chimical Composition

  • IRON (Fe): the basic constituent.
  • CARBON (C): gives hardness and strength.
  • MANGANESE (Mn): gives toughness and strength. Neutralises sulphur.
  • SILICON (Si): a deoxident – oxide reducer. Usually added through filler wire.
  • ALUMINIUM (Al) an oxide reducer, grain refiner and adds toughness. (In killed steel the oxygen is removed by aluminium).
  • CHROMIUM (Cr): gives corrosion resistance, high temperature strength and creep resistance. (Grain creep occurs over time at high temperatures due to gravity.)
  • MOLYBDENUM (Mo): gives high temperature creep resistance.
  • TITANIUM (Ti): Ti and Nb are both grain refiners and stabilising agents. They prevent
  • NIOBIUM (Nb): intergranular corrosion and weld decay. Used in austenitic steels.
  • VANADIUM (V): gives hardness and strength.
  • SULPHUR (S): a contaminant. (Main cause of solidification cracking – ‘hot shortness’)
  • NICKEL (Ni): gives low temperature toughness and strength.
  • COPPER (Cu): a contaminant – causes liquation cracks. (Though also used for weathering steel and a possible grain refiner.)
  • PHOSPHORUS (P): a contaminant.

C. Base Metal Grouping (P-Number) of ASME Section IX
 

P-Numbers

Base Metal (Typical or Example)

1

Carbon  Manganese  Steels (four Group Numbers)

2

Not Used

3

Half Molybdenum or half Chromium, half Molybdenum (three Group Numbers)

4

One and a quarter Chromium, half Molybdenum (two Group Numbers)

5A

Two and a quarter Chromium, one Molybdenum

5B

Five Chromium, half Molybdenum or nine Chromium, one Molybdenum (two Group Numbers)

5C

Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium (five Group Numbers)

6

Martensitic Stainless Steels (Grade 410, 415, 429) (six Group Numbers)

7

Ferritic Stainless Steels (Grade 409, 430)

8

Austenitic Stainless Steels

  •      Group 1 – Grades 304, 316, 317, 347

  •      Group 2 – Grades 309, 310

  •      Group 3 – High Manganese Grades

  •      Group 4 – High Molybdenum Grades

9A, B, C

Two to four Nickel Steels

10A, B, C, F

Various low alloy steels

10H

Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Grades 31803, 32750)

10I

High Chromium Stainless Steel

10J

High Chromium, Molybdenum Stainless Steel

10K

High Chromium, Molybdenum, Nickel Stainless Steel

11A

Various high strength low alloy steels (six Group Numbers)

11B

Various high strength low alloy steels (ten Group Numbers)

12 to 20

Not Used

21

High Aluminum content (1000 and 3000 series)

22

Aluminum (5000 series – 5052, 5454)

23

Aluminum (6000 series – 6061, 6063)

24

Not Used

25

Aluminum (5000 series – 5083, 5086, 5456)

26 to 30

Not used

31

High Copper content

32

Brass

33

Copper Silicone

34

Copper Nickel

35

Copper Aluminum

36 to 40

Not Used

41

High Nickel content

42

Nickel, Copper – (Monel 500)

43

Nickel, Chromium, Iron – (Inconel)

44

Nickel, Molybdenum – (Hastelloy B2, C22, C276, X)

45

Nickel, Chromium

46

Nickel, Chromium, Silicone

47

Nickel, Chromium, Tungsten

47 to 50

Not Used

51, 52, 53

Titanium Alloys

61, 62

Zirconium Alloys

D. Weld Metal Grouping (A-Number) of ASME Section IX

A-No. Deposit Types of Weld
1 Mild Steel
2 Carbon-Molybdenum
3 Chrome (0.4% to 2%)–Molybdenum
4 Chrome (2% to 4%)–Molybdenum
5 Chrome (4% to 10.5%)–Molybdenum
6 Chrome-Martensitic
7 Chrome-Ferritic
8 Chromium–Nickel
9 Chromium–Nickel
10 Nickel to 4%
11 Manganese–Molybdenum
12 Nickel–Chrome—Molybdenum

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